There are a few things worth knowing that are not part of this map. First, you don't get fabric until fairly late in the game when you unlock the printer or from boxes that you get when smashing cargo containers. The other thing is that it is worth the time to 100% clean out the home area before venturing out. It will give you a good base of resources to start with, and it is unlikely you will run out of wood ever and not need more aluminum until basically the end of current content.
Aluminum is found at the 3 locations with the dark grey circles and collected from either the solar panels (5 each) or reinforced military vehicles (at least 20 each, maybe more) found in the east and west military encampments. As stated prior, it is unlikely you will need to go looking for aluminum more than once if you clean out the home area as you will not run low until fairly late in the game.
Copper is marked as orange and is best found in the power substations (60 each if I remember right) either in the center of town or just off the west bridge.
Fabric is lime green. It is unlikely you will need extra fabric as, by the time you unlock the printer, you will likely be swimming in scrap fabric from trash bags. If you do need it, it can be found in basically any seating in buildings, but the nearest source can be found in the office building near your base.
Glass can be found in the green ring with the solar panels. (like 5 each) You will not need a ton of glass as I think it is only used for the greenhouse and research stations, so you may end up with enough just from trash bags.
Iron is light grey. Most of the time you will have enough from trash bags and breaking down vehicles, but if you need extra the best places to get it are the supermarket near your base or the shelves in the 2 safe rooms.
Between what you get from killing enemies and farming bushes, there is basically no need to farm organics anywhere, and you can get a good amount killing any enemy, so it is found everywhere.
Plastic is blue. The single best place to get plastic is the east army encampment. Between the port-a-potties and the small green boxes, you can net about 300 plastic here.
Steel is best found in the purple areas can be found basically anywhere. The best things to get steel from are buses and cargo containers netting 100 steel each. Cars are your next best source at 20-50 each depending on vehicle type.
Stone is found in the dark red areas. You can get it from the stone fence near the houses at the center of town for a few hundred, or you can break down the entrance of the west encampment for a few thousand stone (you don't need the reinforced concrete upgrade for the marked area but this might be a glitch).
Rubber is found in the black areas. There are 2 tire piles. One in the center of town that will give you about 100 and the other in the west military base that will give you about 70.
It is unlikely you will need more wood than is found in the starting area, but if you do you can get it in the teal areas. Ether from the forest or the stump monsters near the nuke plant.
Lithium is collected from batteries in the red areas. They look like barrels with a teal stripe running up the side. Each location should net you like 20 batteries each.
There is currently 1 quest in game that is marked in yellow. It starts in front of your base and moves to the east area later on.
Oil Buckets can be found in the pink area. They are found either in the barrel pallets in the warehouse, the barrels on their side with a flammable sign on them near the docks, or the red barrels in the military base.
Oil barrels are found in the white ring. As far as I know these currently have no use but they can be found in the large fuel tanks to the west.