Here you can find an advice on how to solve the first scale puzzle on the island to the left of the fathership.
How to Solve The Scale Puzzle
The Scales are in order of Heaviest to Lightest, Left to Right. Put a weight on the scale, and see which direction the arrow points to. It tells you which is heavier.
My process is: get one scale, put it on one side, and keep putting new scales until you find one that is heavier or are sure it’s the heaviest.
Then, when you find a heavier one, do the same process with the rest.
After that, put the heaviest on the leftmost side, then find the next heaviest scale.