Victoria 3 – Vickypedia / Glossary (Guide About Each Game Concept)

The in-game manual is called Vickypedia. It provides an overview of each game element, much like a glossary.

List of Vickypedia Entries

A

Accepted Culture

A Country’s Accepted Cultures consists of its Primary Cultures, plus any other Cultures considered Accepted due to the Country’s current Citizenship Law.

Accepted Religion

A Country’s Accepted Religions consists of its State Religion, plus any other Religions considered Accepted due to the Country’s current Church and State Law.

Active Interest

A fully functional Interest. Interests you gain from own at least one non-colonial State in the State Region are always considered Active, while Declared Interests are Inactive when first Declared.

Additional Expenses

Expenses that don’t fit into another category, often incurred due to the outcome of special events.

Additional Income

Income that doesn’t fit into another category, often gained from the outcome of special events.

Admiral

A naval Commander Character who leads a Country’s Flotillas. Effects from an Admiral’s Character Traits are conferred onto Flotillas under their command.

Advance Factor

Advance Factor is a static factor used to determine Enactment Advance by scaling the Base Success chance.

Advancement Progress

Generals Ordered to advance a Front accumulates Advancement Progress daily depending on their Advancement Speed. Once the Advancement Progress of the Front has reached 100 a Battle will start. While a Battle is ongoing on the Front, Advancement Progress on that Front will be paused.

Advancement Speed

How rapidly a General can advance their Front by accumulating Advancement Progress. A General with no Mobilized Battalions has an effective Advancement Speed of zero.

Alliance

A Diplomatic Pact between two Countries. Countries engaged in an Alliance may always side with each other in Diplomatic Plays regardless of if the other side maintains an Active Interest in the affected Strategic Region. This applies no matter if the other Country is the initiator or target of the Play.

Approval

An Interest Group’s Approval depends on two main factors: how much of their Political Strength comes from Radicals compared to Loyalists, and how well the Country’s current Laws match with the Interest Group’s Ideologies. In addition, if a new Law is currently being Enacted, Approval will be affected by a larger temporary adjustment which will linger while Decaying for up to 60 months after it has passed.

Arable Land

The amount of land in a State that can be used for cultivating crops or raising cattle. Unlike Buildings that require certain Resource Potentials to be constructed, Arable Land must be shared between the Building types that require it. The amount of Arable Land that stands unused by other Buildings may be used for Subsistence Building, letting Pops eke out a meager living even if not gainfully employed.

Assimilation

Foreign Pops whose Culture is Accepted in the Country they live, and who do not live in one of their Homelands, may Assimilating into one of the Country’s Primary Cultures.

Attitude

An indication of how another Country feels about you, based on Relations, Infamy, Strategic Desire, and factors such as how large your military is and which Countries you have Diplomatic Pacts with. Attitude affects what sorts of actions a Country is likely to take towards you and what role you play in their plans.

Attrition

Casualties inflicted on Manpower outside of Battle is referred to as Attrition. It is frequently experienced when Battalions are Mobilized and can be the result of disease, accidents, exposure, or even desertion. Attrition can be counteracted with using military Medical Aid Production Methods.

Authority

Authority is a Capacity used to effect internal change to your Country, like issuing Decrees or managing Interest Groups. You gain Authority from Laws.

Available Battalions

A Country’s available Battalions include all Battalions currently raised by Barracks and/or Conscription Centers.

Average Annual Wage

The average Wages a single Individual in the Workforce would earn annually while working at this Building.

B

Balance

A Building’s Balance is the amount of Money that remains of its Revenue after paying Wages and purchasing required Input Goods. The Balance is divided between Pops with Ownership Share and the Building’s Cash Reserves. A Building’s Balance can be improved either by making its Input Goods cheaper, or by making its Output Goods more expensive. This can be done by increasing or decreasing Supply and Demand on the Market it belongs to.

Bankroll

An Ongoing Diplomatic Action where one Country pays part of its income to another, based on the weekly tax revenue of the recipient. This action has a chance each month to generate an Obligation towards the bankrolling Country.

Bankruptcy

If a Country is in Default and unable to pay back its Loans, it may opt to declare Bankruptcy. This will clear the debt but wipe out all Cash Reserves the Country had borrowed from, and will greatly anger any Pops with Ownership Shares.In addition, the following effects are applied for 10 years:

Base Price

The price of a Good when its Supply exactly equal its Demand.

Base Success chance

Base Success chance is equal to the total Clout of supporting Interest Groups in Government plus or minus Support gained from any relevant Political Movements.

Battalion

An army Military Unit in a Country’s military. They are created and maintained by Barracks and are commanded by Generals.

Battle

When two Commanders encounter each other and come into conflict during a War, they and their Military Units will clash in an attempt to inflict Casualties and damage each others’ Morale. The side whose Manpower has run out or become Demoralized first will withdraw, leaving the other side victorious.

On land, Battles take place in Provinces adjacent to Fronts when one General is advancing to take or regain Land. The winner will either conquer more Provinces or prevent the enemy from doing so.

At sea, Battles take place in Sea Nodes when one Admiral intercepts another due to conflicting Orders. The winner leaves their opponent damaged and forces them to return to port for repairs, leaving them unable to execute their Order for a time.

Battle Condition

During Battles each side will be affected by a Battle Condition that influences the outcome. Which Condition applies depends on a number of factors, which often includes the Character Traits of the Commanders in charge of that side.

Bolster

A Bolstered Interest Group is more attractive for Pops to support. Your base Bolstering ability is determined by your Free Speech Law. Bolstering Interest Groups costs Authority.

Building

Buildings drive your Country’s economy via the Production (and Consumption) of Goods. They can also produce a number of other useful effects, such as Bureaucracy, Infrastructure, and Convoys.

To perform their functions they require a Workforce made up by Pops of different Professions, who receive a Wage in return for their labor.

What functions a particular Building serves is determined by its active Production Methods, and the magnitude of its impact is determined by its Level.

You can Construct new, or expand existing, Buildings in each of your States using your Construction Sector.

Building Level

A Building’s Level scales its current Consumption, Production, Workforce requirements, and may apply an Economy of Scale bonus. The maximum Level a Building can be expanded to may depend on the Resource Potential or Arable Land in the State. Expanding a Building’s Level usually requires Construction, though some Building’s Level is automatically adjusted based on other factors such as Infrastructure, Trade Routes, Conscription rate, or unused Arable Land.

Bureaucracy

Bureaucracy is a Capacity used to maintain your Country’s administrative cohesion and day-to-day operations. The cost increases with the population across your Incorporated States and with every Institution investment level, and is also used to administer Commanders and Trade Routes. You gain Bureaucracy from operating Government Administration Buildings.

Buy Orders

The number of orders to buy a Good on the central Market is used in combination with Sell Orders to determine its Market Price. Buy Orders are generated by the consumption of the Good in each of the Market’s States. The higher the Market Access a State has, the closer the number of Buy Orders generated will be to the total consumption.

C

Canal

A Canal is a Building that also includes the construction of an artificial connection between two sea nodes across a landmass. Canals can only be constructed in particular places and typically require the completion of some sort of survey or other expedition first. Canals can drastically shorten the distance Convoys need to travel when establishing Shipping Lanes, making trade with distant lands more affordable.

Capacity

A measure of your Country’s capabilities in one of three areas: Bureaucracy, Authority, and Influence. Capacities are not stored and used, but continuously generated from different sources and continually expended by the various projects you have going on. Your remaining balance in each area is displayed in the top bar. Having an excess of a Capacity will yield a minor bonus for your Country, while having a lack of a Capacity will inflict large penalties.

Capital State

The site of a Country’s central Government. Controlling the Capital is of great importance during wartime, and Pops who live there have a greater degree of Political Strength by which to influence politics.

Cash Reserves

The assets of a Building is stored in its Cash Reserves. If the Building runs a positive weekly Balance, some of the Money is deposited into the Cash Reserves while the rest is paid out to Pops with Ownership Shares as Dividends.

Cash Reserves are considered to be owned by the Pops with Ownership Shares, who will be angry if their Cash Reserves are destroyed due to downsizing or Bankruptcy. The sum of all Cash Reserves in your Country determines your Credit.

Casualties

Manpower who fall in battle or through Attrition are considered Casualties. A proportion of Casualties are killed outright while the remainder are Wounded. This ratio is dependent on the Military Unit’s Recovery Rate compared to their enemy’s Kill Rate.

Character

Characters fulfill different Roles in your Country. Their ability to perform these duties depends on their Character Traits. They always support an Interest Group, and may have an Ideology that shapes their aspirations and outlook.

Character Trait

Personality Traits, Skill Traits, or Conditions that impact a Character’s ability to carry out their current Role. More or different Character Traits may develop as the Character gains Life Experience.

Civil War

A War where a Country has split into two opposing sides. Revolutions and Secessions are examples of Civil Wars.

Claim

A territorial Claim that a Country has on a State Region, usually because it once belonged to them. Having a Claim permits use of the Return State War Goal which does not generate as much Infamy as the Conquer State War Goal does.

Conquering an Incorporated State will give the previous owner a Claim on the State Region.

Clout

An Interest Group’s share of the total Political Strength that Pops across their Country generate. Clout is the final word on how influential an Interest Group is, and affects everything from Legitimacy and Enactment of Laws if the Interest Group is In Government, to Political Movement Support and Radicalism if it is In Opposition. It also affects whether the Interest Group is considered Powerful, Influential, or Marginalized.

Colonial Growth

A measure of how rapidly a Country can push the Colonial frontier forward. Colonial Growth is generated by the Colonial Affairs Institution in combination with the total Population across Incorporated States. The total amount of Colonial Growth generated is split up across all Colonies a Country is actively growing, up to a maximum.

Colony

Settlement efforts initiated by a colonizing Country in the lands of a Decentralized Nation. A would-be colonizer must have the Colonial Affairs Institution and an Interest in the Strategic Region. At first, a single Province will be taken. Adjacent Provinces will be Colonized at a rate depending on the Country’s Colonial Growth, generating Tension as they do.

Combat Width

The Combat Width of a particular Terrain type determines the potential numeric advantage the larger side can have over the smaller side in Battle. A smaller force can hold out for longer against a larger force if Combat Width is relatively low, and vice versa.

Command Limit

Command Limit determines how many Battalions or Flotillas a Commander can command. You can increase a Commander’s Command Limit by giving them a promotion to the next Commander Rank.

Commander

A Character in command of a part of a Country’s military forces. Their Commander Rank determines how many forces they are allotted from the Country’s available reserves.

Commander Rank

A Commander’s Rank determines their Command Limit, as well as how much Clout they confer to their Interest Group. Retiring a Commander will cause their Interest Group’s Approval to fall by a factor depending on their Rank.

Confidence

An AI-controlled Countries that is one of the main participants in a Diplomatic Play has a level of of Confidence based on their internal conditions and how likely they believe it is that they will be able to win any ensuing war. The chance that the AI Country will decide to back down is directly determined by their confidence, though this is not guaranteed even at low Confidence levels, especially if backing down would lead to their annexation.

Conscript Battalion

Conscript Battalions are temporary Battalions recruited and maintained from the civilian Population by Conscription Centers activated during Diplomatic Plays or Wars.

Conscription Center

When a State is Conscripted during a Diplomatic Play or War, a Conscription Center appears with a Building Level depending on its Conscription Rate and State Population size. This Military Building will recruit civilian Workforce into Conscript Battalions that will be automatically assigned to Generals in their HQ as they are raised.

After the War, all Conscription Centers will deactivate and the Conscript Battalions will disband. Pops who return to civilian life are not guaranteed to return to their old Profession but must seek new employment opportunities.

Construction

Construction is produced by the Construction Sector and is used to construct Buildings.

Construction Goods

Goods Consumed by Construction Sector Buildings in order to Construct new Buildings.

Construction Queue

Any Buildings that have been set to be expanded, but are currently not using any Construction, are placed in the Construction Queue. Whenever any Construction becomes available, the first Building in the Construction Queue will start using that Construction and then switch to being Under Construction.

Consumption

The amount of a Good consumed by a Building or Pop in the process of maintaining its Throughput or Wealth.

Consumption Tax

A Tax collected on specific Goods purchased by Pop to meet their Pop Needs. Each Good subject to Consumption Taxes costs a certain amount of Authority. When applied to a Good, its Market Price increases by the Consumption Tax rate at point of sale to Pops only, with all Buy Orders generated in this manner resulting in the surcharge being collected by the Treasury. Since the surcharge is applied on the Market level, the Tax is ineffective in States with low Market Access.

Consumption Taxes

A Tax collected on the Consumption of Goods. Goods subject to Consumption Taxes will have its Market Price increased by the Consumption Tax Rate, and whenever Pops buy it this increase will be collected by the Treasury. Buildings are exempt from paying Consumption Taxes.

Conversion

Pops whose Religion is Discriminated Against in the Country they live may instead Convert to an Accepted Religion.

Convoy Cost

The Convoy Cost of a Shipping Lane is determined by how many Goods a Trade Route moves, how many Battalions a Supply Route provides for, or how much Infrastructure Usage a Port Connection facilitates Market Access for. This more Sea Nodes Shipping Lane must pass through on its way to the destination, the higher the total Convoy Cost. The total Convoy Cost of all Shipping Lanes is compared to the total number of Convoys provided by Port Buildings to determine the strength of your Supply Network.

Convoys

Convoys are produced by Port Buildings and are required to operate Shipping Lanes.

Countdown to War

The Countdown to War phase is the third and last phase of a Diplomatic Play. War might now be inevitable, with both sides frantically making preparations or considering any last-minute options to back down.

Information Typical preparations for War includes: Mobilization of Generals, giving them Ordersto advance or defend the Fronts, Drafting Conscript Battalions, and promoting your Generals to increase their Command Limit where necessary.

Country

A Country consists of one or several parcels of Land organized into States, in which a Population resides under the rule of a Government and its Head of State. In Victoria 3, both human and AI players each control a Country.

Aside from the nature of their Pops, which States they own, and how they been developed, a Country is defined also by their Country Tier, Primary Cultures, and State Religion, and whether they are Recognized or Unrecognized. Countries also have different Laws and access to different Technologies.

Country Tier

A Country’s Tier is the inherent status and Prestige it is granted based on its history and significance. Forming a new Country is only possible if its Tier is higher than the Country’s current one.

Country Unification

The act of unifying and forming a new Country out of several Countries is called Unification. A Country can be formed by controlling a specific number of States in the new Country’s region.

A Major Unification allows Countries to become Unification Candidates which gives them access to the Unification Diplomatic Play. This Diplomatic Play sets the War Goals to annex all the required States and Countries.

While a Minor Unification do not allow any Unification Candidates and can only form a Country if the number of required States are controlled.

Credit

The national Credit is the amount of Money the Treasury can borrow from its economy, equal to the sum of all domestic Cash Reserves plus a base value determined by Gross Domestic Product. If the Principal exceeds the Credit Limit the Country goes into Default.

Cultural Trait

Aspects of a Culture such as its dominant language and from which part of the world it originates. The similarity between the Cultural Traits of a Country’s Primary Culture and the Culture of a Pop, combined with the Country’s current Citizenship Law, determines whether the Pop is Discriminated Against or not.

Cultural Turmoil

The Turmoil generated by Pops of a specific Culture. If its global value is high enough, a Migration Target may be created to facilitate mass Migration for Pops of that Culture. One Migration Target may be created for every 0.2 Turmoil in a Culture. If its value is high enough in a particular country, those Pops may instead attempt to separate their Homelands in a Secession.

Culture

All Pops have a Culture, which can only change through Assimilation. Their Culture determines which State Regions they consider their Homelands and whether they are Discriminated Against in their Country or not.

Customs Union

A Diplomatic Pact between a Senior Partner and one or several Junior Partners to share a single Market, under the leadership of the Senior Partner. All Subject Pacts also act as a Customs Union Pact.

D

Dead

Casualties that end up Dead due to Battle or Attrition.

Decay

A Decaying effect will gradually decrease in intensity, starting from its initial value and decreasing linearly down to 0 over the stated decay duration.

Decentralized Nation

A Nation that share most properties of Countries – Pops, a Ruler, Buildings, Laws and so on – but with a lack of centralized power (and/or will) to enforce borders. This makes them prone to Colonization by Countries who do not see them as equals to be properly Negotiated with for land rights.

Decentralized Nations are AI controlled and are not playable by humans.

Declared Interest

If you do not own at least one non-colonial State in a State Region, but wish to maintain an Interest there anyway, you may choose to Declare an Interest there. The number of Interests you can Declare in such State Regions depends on your Rank.

Decree

Decrees are demands made by a Country’s Ruler to effect changes in a State under their control. Decrees cost Authority for as long as they are active. Once issued, the Decree will provide a certain bonus to the State until it is removed.

Default

Once the Treasury accumulates Loans large enough that they exceed the Country’s total Credit, the Country is considered to be in Default. This will pause all ongoing Construction and will have a negative impact on the Throughput of Buildings, growing more severe as time passes. Penalties are removed as soon as the Country’s weekly balance becomes positive again, or if Bankruptcy is declared.

Defense

A Military Unit’s fighting ability in Battle while defending from enemy incursions.

Defensive Pact

A Diplomatic Pact between two Countries. Countries engaged in a Defensive Pact may always side with each other in Diplomatic Plays in which they are the primary target, regardless of if the other side maintains an active Active Interest in the affected Strategic Region. This does not extend to Diplomatic Plays where the other party is the initiator, or where they are backing a third Country as a primary target.

Dependent Income

At the end of each week, Pops receive a Dependent Income based on their number of Dependents and the amount of income they qualify for. Most Dependents receive a base amount from odd jobs depending on the Pop’s Profession, which can be supplemented by the Social Security Institution.

Dependents

The part of a Pop not considered part of the Workforce. They represent the families of the Working Adults and normally constitute the majority of the population. Dependents usually generate Dependent Income that is typically smaller than the Wages collected by Working Adults, but they also have lower Pop Needs. While they are able to support Interest Groups their Political Strength typically count for less. They are only granted Voting Rights under very specific Laws.

Enacting different Laws or maintaining certain Institutions may convert Dependents into Working Adults over time, increase their Political Strength, or supplement their Dependent Income.

Devastation

Devastation is the damage done to a State Region as a result of war or natural disasters. It increases from Battles and when under hostile Occupation. It will decrease over time if no part of the State Region is at war.

Devastation has a negative impact on Infrastructure, Mortality, Throughput, and Migration Attraction.

Diplomatic Action

A broad term for interactions between two Countries that includes Instant Diplomatic Actions, Ongoing Diplomatic Actions, and Diplomatic Pacts. They differ from Diplomatic Plays in that no third party is allowed to have a say in its outcome, and there is no risk the action on its own might escalate into War.

Diplomatic Incident

A Diplomatic Incident is typically the result of a Country starting a Diplomatic Play. Diplomatic Incidents generate Infamy for the Country who started it, and will cause Relations to fall with all Countries with an Interest in the Strategic Region, particularly the target of the Play. Diplomatic Incidents can also be the result of other actions, for example decisions made during special events.

Diplomatic Lens

View the Attitude of other Countries and monitor your Interests and their Strategic Regions, establish Diplomatic Pacts and take Actions, and start Diplomatic Plays.

Diplomatic Maneuvers

The Diplomatic Maneuvers phase is the second phase of a Diplomatic Play. In this phase, the Initiator and Target can attempt to Sway other Countries to their side or claim additional War Goals for themselves, at the cost of Maneuvers.

Diplomatic Pact

Unilateral or bilateral understandings between two Countries. They may have a maintenance cost in Influence for one or both parties, and can have a wide range of effects including Subject relationships. Pacts can break for a number of different reasons, including Relations deviating too far in either direction, one side or another explicitly breaking it, or a time limit running out.

Diplomatic Pacts

Money collected from or remitted to the other party in a Diplomatic Pact.

Diplomatic Play

A Diplomatic Play is a period of hostile diplomatic negotiations between two or more Countries that follows after one Country makes a demand for a concession by another. To start a Diplomatic Play you must have an Active Interest in the relevant Strategic Region, which also entitles you to participate in Plays as a third party in that Strategic Region.

The Diplomatic Play will Escalate through three phases: Opening Moves, Diplomatic Maneuvers, and Countdown to War. These phases set the terms for a possible Peace Deal should the Diplomatic Play Escalate into a War. A War can be averted if either the Initiator or Target of the Play backs down and grants the other their primary War Goal.

Discrimination

Pops can be Discriminated Against if their Culture and/or Religion are not accepted in their Country. Discriminated Pops:

  • Get paid less than their peers
  • Have less Political Strength
  • Are less likely to develop Qualifications for certain Profession
  • Naturally become Radical over time
  • And are more likely to Emigrate.

In addition, certain Laws limit or expand national acceptance of Culture and Religions.

Disenfranchised

A Disenfranchised Pop is prohibited from participating in the Country’s politics. As a result they cannot support any Interest Groups. The most common reason for a Pop to be Disenfranchised is Discrimination.

Dividends

While Buildings have a positive balance, some of these profits are paid out to Pops with Ownership Shares as Dividends. This source of Pop Income is subject to Dividends Taxes. Depending on the Country’s current Economic System Law some part of these Dividends may be allocated to the Investment Pool while the remainder goes towards Pop Needs and Wealth.

Dividends Taxes

A Tax applied to the Dividends earned by Pops with Ownership Shares.

Dominion

Recognized Powers may turn a weaker Country into their Dominion. A Dominion is a more autonomous Subject type that are able to start their own Diplomatic Plays and are not forced to join their Overlord’s Wars. They must pay 10% of their Treasury income to their Overlord each week.

E

Economy Health

A Country’s economy is considered Healthy if either:

  • Yes its fixed incomes exceed its fixed expenses
  • Yes its Principal is less than half their total Credit

Economy of Scale

Many Buildings become more efficient the larger they get. Such Buildings gain the following effects for every Building Level beyond the first.

Education Access

The degree by which a Pop is able to access education for their children. As new generations are born and raised, the Pop’s Literacy will move towards its level of Education Access.

Election

Countries with a Voting Franchise will hold Elections every 4 years. An Election campaign period will commence 6 months prior to the date, during which Parties will vie for Momentum and Votes.

On Election day the final Votes will be tallied, which will affect the Political Strength of the member Interest Groups of each Party. Under certain Government Types a new Head of State may also be selected as a result of the Election’s outcome. Finally, a single Government Reform may be performed where any Interest Groups may be removed from Government without generating any new Radicals.

Embargo

An Ongoing Diplomatic Action established by one Country targeting another, which completely blocks the target Country from importing or exporting Goods in the Market belonging to the country enforcing the embargo. Countries that are at War will automatically Embargo each other.

Enactment Advance

Enactment Advance indicates the percentage chance that the enactment process of a Law will advance somehow at the next checkpoint, even if it will not meet with a full Success yet. It is derived from the enactment’s Base Success chance.

Enactment Debate

Enactment Debate indicates the percentage chance that the enactment process of a Law will meet with some kind of complication at the next checkpoint. The lower the total chances of Success, Advance, and Stall the greater the chance of Debate.

Enactment Success

Enactment Success indicates the percentage chance that a Law will be enacted at the next checkpoint. It is equal to the Base Success chance plus any effects accumulated during the enactment process.

Enactment of Laws

The act of attempting to push a new Law through the Country’s legislature. At regular intervals the Law’s Enactment Success chance will be tested. The time between tests is dependent on the Government’s Legitimacy. If the Law does not pass, it will either Advance, be Debated, or Stall which affects its chances to pass the next test or introduce other consequences to your Country.

End-of-Discussion Factor

The presence of a End-of-Discussion Factor represents that Interest Groups in Government consider further discussion of the merits of the Law currently being enacted no longer useful. The lower this factor gets, the more negative pressure it puts on the possibility that the enactment may Advance or Stall.

Endorsement and Opposition to Laws

An Interest Group’s Endorsement or Opposition of a Law is determined by their Ideologies. For a Law to be able to be Enacted it must be Endorsed by at least one Interest Group In Government, or supported by a current Political Movement.

Escalation

Once a Diplomatic Play has been initiated, it steadily Escalates through three distinct phases: Opening Moves, Diplomatic Maneuvers, and Countdown to War. The phase limits which actions are available to participants. If the Play does not resolve prior to Escalation progressing all the way through the Countdown to War, War will break out.

Escort Convoys

Escort Convoys through their Shipping Lanes safely, engaging enemy vessels as needed.

F

Flotilla

A naval Military Unit in a Country’s military. They are created and maintained by Naval Bases and are commanded by Admirals.

Front

A collection of Provinces on the border of Theaters between two Countries at War with each other. Generals can be Ordered to advance or defend Fronts, which can result in Battles that change the size of the Theaters and the location of the Front.

Fully Mobilized Battalions

A Country’s fully mobilized Battalions include all Battalions that have already undergone Mobilization and are fully prepared to follow their General into Battle.

G

Garrison

The Garrison of an HQ consists of all Battalions that are not yet Mobilized. During War, an HQ’s Garrison will be distributed across any Fronts present there, where they are temporarily and automatically assigned to defending Generals for the duration of a given Battle or even able to defend independently should no General be available.

Garrison forces have lower Consumption of Military Goods on account of not being Mobilized, but do not derive the benefit of General’s Character Traits and are less likely to become available in defensive Battles. Garrison forces cannot join advances.

General

An army Commander Character who leads a Country’s Battalions. To issue an Order to a General, it must be Mobilized. Effects from a General’s Character Traits are conferred onto Battalions under their direct command.

Gold Reserves

A Country’s weekly budget surplus is accumulated in its Gold Reserves. If the budget balance becomes negative, any Money in the Gold Reserves will be depleted first before the Country starts taking Loans. The Gold Reserves can only accumulate up to a fraction of your Gross Domestic Product before diminishing returns set in. Stockpiling gold will eventually lead to depleting your economic engine.

Good

Goods are Produced in Buildings by Buildings and Pops. Goods have both a Local Price and a Market Price.

Goods Input

An adjustment to the amount of Goods Consumed by a Building.

Goods Substitution

Goods that are part of the same Pop Needs category are mutually substitutable to Pops based on availability. For example, the Basic Food group contains both Grain and Meat, and Pops will consume more Grain and less Meat, increasing their Meat consumption (and thus reducing Grain consumption) if Meat becomes more available in the market at a later point. In some cases, a Good may be substituted entirely if there are no Sell Orders for that Good in the Market.

How much of a Good a Pop will buy compared to other Goods in the same category will change substantially if the Good is an Obsession of their Culture or a Taboo in their Religion. Goods that have a higher Base Price count more towards fulfilling a Pop’s Pop Needs within a particular Pop Needs category, so a single unit of Groceries is equivalent to several units of Grain.

Goods for Government Buildings

Goods Consumed by a Country’s Government Buildings.

Goods for Military Buildings

Goods Consumed by a Country’s Military Buildings.

Government

A Country’s Government consists of one or several Interest Groups. If the Country has Voting Rights these Interest Groups may be organized into Parties. Depending on the Country’s Laws, this mix of Interest Groups will result in higher or lower Government Legitimacy.

Any new Law you wish to Enact must have some support among Interest Groups that make up the Government, unless it is supported by an active Political Movement. The ability to quickly and painlessly push the Law through the legislature depends on how unified the Government’s support of it is.

Government Building

A Building owned and operated by the Government using funds from the Treasury. Government Buildings have no Goods Production and therefore no Revenue, but produce a number of other resources crucial to running a Country such as Bureaucracy, Infrastructure, Convoys, and Military Units. The Workforce of non-military Government Buildings get paid according to the Government Wage, while Military Buildings get paid according to the Military Wage.

Government Expenses

The total weekly Expenses accrued by the Government, balanced against all its weekly revenues such as Taxes, with the balance added to or removed from the Treasury.

Government Good

Goods Consumed by Government Buildings using funds from the Treasury.

Government Reform

During a Government Reform you may alter the composition of your Government freely by granting or removing Interest Groups and/or Parties from power. Interest Groups removed from power during such a Reform will gain Radicals, unless the Reform is performed shortly after a concluded Election.

Government Slaves

The upkeep of Slaves laboring directly for a Country’s government.

Government Type

A Country’s Government Type is determined by its Laws and determines its Transfer of Power, meaning who serves as its Head of State.

Government Wage

All Government Buildings except Military Buildings pay their Workforce according to the same standardized Government Wage rate. This rate is based on the Normal Wage in the Country, with any adjustments set in the Budget panel.

Government Wages

Wages paid to Pops by Government Buildings. The rate is based on the Country’s Normal Wage. You can adjust it up and down in the Budget panel.

Great Power

Those few Countries that run the world through global empires or absolute local dominance are considered to be Great Power Rank. They are in a constant standoff with other Great Powers for an edge, and always wary of plucky Major Powers trying to ascend to greatness at their expense.

Gross Domestic Product

Each unit of Goods produced in your Country contributes to your Gross Domestic Product. The quantity produced is multiplied by the Goods Market Price, with the sum totalled across all Goods.

GDP affects Prestige and Minting.

H

HQ

An HQ (Headquarter) is the territory owned by a Country in a particular Strategic Region. All military Military Units originating from an HQ are pooled and assigned to those Commanders who hails from that HQ. Any Military Units not assigned or not Mobilized during War are considered to be in that HQ’s Garrison, where they will independently defend any Front in their HQ.

Head of State

A Country’s Ruler or highest representative. The Government Type determines who serves as the Head of State and when they are replaced.

Heathen Taxes

A type of Poll Tax collected from all Pops whose Religion is Discriminated against by their Country.

Heir

The Heir of a Country is a Character. They will take over the Role of Ruler upon the current Ruler’s death.

Heritage Cultural Trait

A type of Cultural Trait that specifies the general region of the world where the Culture originated. Certain Citizenship Laws consider Heritage Cultural Traits to be more important than other Cultural Traits when determining whether a Pop should be Discriminated Against or not.

Homeland

A Culture’s Homelands consist of those State Regions that Pops of that Culture feel are historically or naturally their territory. Pops are more prone to Migrate to their Homelands than other States, and Pops who reside there will never consider Assimilating.

Launching a Diplomatic Play to conquer a State considered a Homeland of one of your Primary Cultures is considered relatively legitimate, and will generate substantially less Infamy than usual.

Humiliation

A War Goal that can be claimed in a Diplomatic Play or as part of a Peace Deal. A Humiliated Country is unable to launch any Diplomatic Plays of their own against the Country they were Humiliated by for a duration of 60 months.

I

Ideology

An Interest Group’s Ideology influences which Laws it Endorses and Opposes. Their stance on the Laws which are currently in effect in the Country have small, permanent effects on the Interest Group’s Approval. While a Country is trying to Enact a new Law, a larger but temporary effect applies relative to which Law is being removed and which is coming into effect. This temporary effect will eventually Decay, leaving only the permanent, objective effect on Approval.

In Government

Interest Groups included in the Government affects which Laws can be Enacted and sets the Country Legitimacy. They will never support Political Movements unless their Approval drops low enough that they leave to join the Opposition.

In Opposition

Interest Groups not part of the Government are considered In Opposition. Their only way to affect Enactment of Laws is through Political Movements, but their Interest Group Traits apply in full as usual.

In Reserve

Military Units that currently have no Commander are considered to be In Reserve. They cannot be given Orders but will defend their homeland as part of a Garrison as needed.

Inactive Interest

When a new Interest is first Declared, it remains Inactive for a period of 30 days before it becomes Active.

Income Taxes

A Tax collected on the Wages paid to the Workforce.

Incorporated State

States that are fully integrated into a Country. Pops in Incorporated States pay taxes, gain access to benefits from Institutions, and participate fully in the Country’s political system. Unincorporated States can be Incorporated through a sometimes lengthy process.

Individual

An individual is a single person within a Pop, who can be either a Working Adult or a Dependent. All Pops are made up of Individuals with the same Culture, Religion, Profession, and Workplace.

Infamy

Infamy reflects the degree by which the international community, particularly the reigning Great Powers, see you as a threat to be contained in light of your past actions. It is accrued primarily from causing Diplomatic Incidents and claiming War Goals in a Peace Deal. Your Infamy affects Countries’ Attitude towards you and increases the Influence cost of Diplomatic Pacts. If it reaches the level of Pariah, Great Powers will be able to start the Cut Down to Size Diplomatic Play against you.

Influence

Influence is a Capacity used for Diplomatic Actions and Pacts targeting another Country. You gain Influence based on your Rank.

Influential

The amount of Clout an Interest Group has decides whether it is Powerful, Influential, or Marginalized. An Influential Interest Group’s Interest Group Traits will have a lesser effect than if they were Powerful.

Interest Groups are considered Influential while their Clout is below 20.0%.

Infrastructure

Infrastructure is provided by Buildings like Railway and Port. It influences how well connected a State is to its Market, and how rapidly Battalions Mobilize.

Infrastructure Usage

Buildings use a certain amount of Infrastructure depending on how technologically advanced or demanding they are. The total Infrastructure Usage in the State is compared to the Infrastructure to determine the State’s Market Access. Infrastructure Usage also increases the cost of Port Connections.

Initiator

The Country that initiated a Diplomatic Play.

Innovation

Innovation is produced by University Buildings and contributes to active research progress for Technologies. Unspent Innovation will increase the Technology Spread you’re currently benefiting from, if any.

Input Goods Shortage

Buildings that consume Goods will suffer an output penalty if less than 50.0% of the Buy Orders for those Goods are satisfied. This is usually caused by insufficient availability of the Good in the Building’s Market, but may also be a result of low Market Access in the Building’s State Region.

Insignificant Power

Countries with such low Prestige they don’t even qualify to be considered Minor Powers are of Insignificant Rank. They struggle for their right to self-determination while trying not to appear too inconvenient to nearby Major and Great Powers.

Instant Diplomatic Action

An action with an instant effect on the Countries involved. They typically require a certain condition to be true in order to be taken but do not cost any Influence.

Institution

Institutions provide benefits to Incorporated States across your Country. They cost Bureaucracy to maintain in proportion to the number of Pops living in your Incorporated States and the Institution’s investment level. Higher levels increase both the cost and the effect. Adjusting investment levels take a set amount of time.

Interest

A Country maintaining an Interest in a Strategic Region signals to the rest of the world that they might get involved in Diplomatic Plays taking place there. Having an Active Interest in a Strategic Region is a requirement for many Diplomatic Actions, and you cannot Colonize State Regions where you do not maintain an Active Interest.

You automatically gain Interests in all Strategic Regions where you own at least one non-colonial State. Your ability to Declare more depends on your Rank.

Interest

The Interest paid by a Country on its Loans. It is calculated by multiplying the Principal with the annual Interest Rate, and is paid out to lending Pops weekly. The Interest Rate paid is affected primarily by Technology.

Interest Group

A political faction within your Country that share a common interest. They are supported by Pops in relation to their Attraction to them, and the Clout they enjoy is based directly on the supporting Pops’ Political Strength. Interest Groups have number of Ideologies, causing them to endorse or oppose different Laws.

They also have three Interest Group Traits that are activated on different Approval levels. Their Leader’s personal Ideology also rubs off on the Interest Group.

Interest Group Attraction

How likely a Pops are to support a particular Interest Group. Influenced by the Pop’s properties, such as Profession, Wealth, and Education Access, a high Attraction means the Pop feels it’s likely this Interest Group represents their political interests.

Interest Group Trait

All Interest Groups have three Traits that take effect on different levels of Approval and have a considerable impact on the whole Country.

  • A negative Trait will activate if Approval drops below Unhappy (-5)
  • A positive Trait will activate if Approval exceeds Happy (+5)
  • An additional positive Trait will activate if Approval exceeds Loyal (+10).

The Traits of Marginalized Interest Groups never activate, while the Traits of Powerful Interest Groups have increased effect.

Investment Level

The current level of an Institution. Each level costs an amount of Bureaucracy depending on the Population size of your Incorporated States, and its effects scale with the level.

Investment Pool

A portion of the Dividends collected by Pops with Ownership Shares is deposited into the Investment Pool, where it becomes available to Construct Buildings the Country’s current Economic System Law permits to be built with these funds. As Construction of such Buildings take place, the funds required to build them are deducted from the Investment Pool and deposited in the Treasury as an Investment Pool Transfer.

Investment Pool Transfer

When Money from the Treasury is used in the Construction of Buildings that may be funded by the Investment Pool under the Country’s current Economic System Law, the Treasury is compensated by an equal transfer of funds from the Investment Pool.

Isolated State Region

A State Region is considered Isolated from its Market if it is not connected by land to its Market Capital, and is not connected by land to a Port that can make a Port Connection to its Market Capital. Isolated State Regions do not generate any Buy Orders and Sell Orders, nor is the Local Price of Goods affected by their Market Price.

J

Journal Entry

Journal Entries track ongoing events in your country. They can present opportunities or challenges, remind you of promises you have made, or warn of potential crises that may occur.

Journal Entries usually resolve and are removed from your Journal when they are considered Complete. Not all Journal Entries can be Completed – some can only Fail, Time Out, or will be removed under some condition.

Junior Partner

A Junior Partner in a Customs Union yields control of their Market to the Senior Partner. While the Junior Partner may continue to Trade with other Markets, they may not issue Embargoes or control Tariff levels. In exchange they collect a minor portion of the Market’s Tariff income and their Industries benefit from participating in a more powerful and mature Market.

K

Kill Rate

How effective a Military Unit is at ensuring their opponent’s Casualties end up unable to come back to fight another day. Increases the ratio of Casualties that end up killed (instead of Wounded). Typically increased by equipping the Military Unit with more destructive Artillery Support Production Method or certain Specialist Companies. Kill Rate is countered by the enemy Military Unit’s Recovery Rate.

L

Land Taxes

A type of Poll Tax collected from Peasants only.

Law

Laws sets the ground rules for how your Country operates and is governed. Certain Laws enable Institutions that provide further control. For a Law to be able to be Enacted it must be Endorsed by at least one Interest Group In Government, or supported by a current Political Movement.

Law Group

A Law Group contains several Laws that affect aspects of the Country in different ways. Each Law Group can only have one Law active at a time.

Leader

The Character who leads an Interest Group has a set of Character Traits that affect it, and a personal Ideology that is added to the Interest Group’s Ideologies for as long as that Leader is in charge.

Legitimacy

A Government’s Legitimacy measures how well the composition of the Interest Groups In Government fits with the Country’s Laws. The lower the Legitimacy, the longer the time between attempts to Enact new Laws. Raising or lowering Taxes also has an impact on Legitimacy.

Life Experience

Characters gain Life Experience over time and through special events. Life Experience influences the possibility of acquiring new Character Traits.

Literacy

The percentage or absolute number of individuals in a Pop who can read and write. Certain Professions demand higher Literacy than others, limiting the Qualifications for Pops in other Professions unless their Literacy is high enough. You can invest in your Education in order to develop higher Literacy in your Population over time.

Loans

Funds that the Treasury owes to the Country’s Pops with Ownership Shares, typically due to some type of government bond program. Whenever the Treasury is running a negative balance, it will add to its Loans unless it has sufficient Gold Reserves to cover it. The maximum size of Loans a Country may take before going into Default is equal to the sum of its Buildings’ Cash Reserves. Interest is accrued on the Principal weekly, and is collected by Pops with Ownership Shares proportionate to the amount of Credit their share of the Cash Reserves provides.

Local Price

The price of a Good in a State. It is determined by the local Consumption and Production, moderated by the Market Price depending on the State’s Market Access. All transactions except Trade occur in the Local Price, with purchases and sales creating Buy and Sell Orders on the Market.

Lower Strata

The Lower Strata consist of Pops in Professions that work with their hands or do repetitive labor which require little to no Qualifications and result in low Wages.

Loyalist

Loyalist Individuals within a Pop are pleased with the state of their Country and are willing to defend it from dissident elements, both verbally and with violence if necessary. The Approval of Interest Groups supported by Loyalist Pops is improved.

Loyalists are created whenever a Pop’s Standard of Living increases and due to decisions made during special events.

The opposite of a Loyalist is a Radical. Whenever a Radical would be created in a Pop that already has Loyalists, one Loyalist is removed instead.

M

Major Power

Countries of Major Powers Rank have established themselves as notable through their regional presence. While they are not yet strong enough to establish a truly global empire they can be a major local force to be reckoned with, and the most powerful among them may aspire to ascend to Great Power status.

Maneuver

Maneuvers can be spent on taking actions in a Diplomatic Play, including claiming additional War Goals or Swaying other Countries to your side. The amount of Maneuvers you have is limited by your Rank.

Manpower

The amount of Servicemen and Officers in a Military Unit. The greater the Manpower the more Casualties the Military Unit will be able to deal and take.

Marginalized

Marginalized Interest Groups have too little Clout to be politically noteworthy. They cannot join the Government, Political Movements, or Parties. Their Interest Group Traits are permanently deactivated for as long as they remain Marginalized.

Already Marginalized Interest Groups remain Marginalized for as long as their Clout is below 5.0%. Non-Marginalized Interest Groups will become Marginalized once their Clout drops below 4.0%, unless they are already In Government in which case they do not become Marginalized until removed.

Market

All States in the same Market will trade Goods with each other, unless they are Isolated. How well connected these States are with each other is measured by their Market Access. Markets may also trade with each other through Trade Routes.

Each Country either controls its own Market or participates in one other via a Customs Union or Subject relationship.

Market Access

A measure of how well-connected a State is to the rest of its Market. It starts at 100% and is reduced proportionally whenever the State’s Infrastructure Usage exceeds its Infrastructure. It impacts both how many Sell Orders and Buy Orders are generated due to the State’s Production and Consumption, and also how much the Market Price affects the Local Price of Goods.

Market Capital

The State that serves as the nexus of a Market, to which all other States in the Market must connect lest they become Isolated. Trade Routes are often, but not always, managed from the Market Capital. The Market Capital is often the same State as the Market Owner’s Capital State, but it is possible to keep these separate.

Market Good Policy

The Market Owner may set a Market Good Policy for each Good in their Market. The default Policy is No Priority, which collects Tariffs on both Imports and Exports at a Tariff Rate according to the Country’s current Trade Policy Law.

Protect Domestic Supply eliminates Import Tariffs to encourage others to sell to you, and to let your own Import Trade Routes flourish at the expense of your Treasury, while Export Tariffs remain in effect to discourage those who might otherwise buy up your supply.

Encourage Exports does the opposite: eliminates Export Tariffs to encourage others to buy from you, and to let your own Export Trade Routes grow, while Import Tariffs remain in effect to discourage other Countries to sell their Goods in your Market.

Market Impact

Market Impact is how much of an effect the current balance of a Good (Buy Orders – Sell Orders) has on a Market. It is not determined solely by Market Price of a Good (being either cheap or expensive), but also takes into consideration the volume of that Good which circulates through the Market, affecting Pops and Industries.

Market Opening

A War Goal that can be claimed in a Diplomatic Play or as part of a Peace Deal. A Country forced to Open its Market immediately changes its Trade Policy to Free Trade and may not change it again for 60 months.They are also subjected to the following effects for the duration:

Market Owner

The Country that owns the market, either because it is the only participant or the Senior Partner in a Customs Union. Only the Market Owner may set Tariffs, Market Good Policies, and issue Embargoes.

Market Price

The price of a Good in the Market. It is based on Buy Orders and Sell Orders, and affect the Local Price of Goods in all participating States depending on their Market Access.

Market Share

The Market Share of each Country in a Market is determined by its Gross Domestic Product, with a bonus if they are the Market Owner. The higher a Country’s Market Share the more Consumption Taxes they collect in the Market.

Middle Strata

The Middle Strata consist of Pops with specialized Professions that are harder to gain Qualifications for. This provides them with more leverage on the labor market and thereby higher Wages.

Migration

The movement of Pops between States in the same Market, or between Countries facilitated by Migration Targets. Migration generally flows from States with lower to higher Migration Attraction. Pops will only consider Emigrating if their Standard of Living is lower than the average in their Market or if they are Unemployed. Migration rate is affected by Infrastructure in the States.

Migration Attraction

Migration Attraction is a State’s ability to attract migrants. It is based primarily on the average Standard of Living among Pops in the State but can be modified by a number of other factors. Any Unemployment in the State will depress Migration Attraction. The value is compared against other States between which migration may occur to determine in which direction migrants tend to flow.

Migration Target

A State selected as a suitable target for mass Migration by a Culture subject to considerable Cultural Turmoil. One Migration Target may be created for every 0.2 Turmoil in a Culture. Surrounding States may also see some degree of Immigration from a Migration Target.

Military Building

Government Buildings used to train, maintain, and supply Battalions and Flotillas for the Country’s army and navy respectively. The Workforce of Military Buildings get paid according to the Military Wage.

Military Good

Goods Consumed by Military Buildings using funds from the Treasury.

Military Lens

View the progress of ongoing Wars, construct Military Buildings, and recruit Commanders.

Military Slaves

The upkeep of Slaves in the service of a Country’s military.

Military Unit

Military Units perform military operations under the guidance of Generals and Admirals. They can be either land-based Battalions or naval Flotillas.

Military Wage

All Military Buildings pay their Workforce according to the same standardized Military Wage rate. This rate is based on the Normal Wage in the Country, with any adjustments set in the Budget panel.

Military Wages

Wages paid to Pops by Military Buildings. The rate is based on the Country’s Normal Wage. You can adjust it up and down in the Budget panel.

Minimum Expected Standard of Living

Minimum Expected Standard of Living is the lowest Standard of Living that a Pop is willing to tolerate. This number is based on whether the Pop is Lower Strata, Middle Strata, or Upper Strata and adjusted by Literacy, and can be modified by certain Technologies. If a Pop has a lower Standard of Living than the Minimum Expected they will gradually become more Radical. Pops with a Standard of Living above the Minimum Expected will still become more Radical each time their Standard of Living is reduced.

Minor Power

Countries of Minor Power Rank are pawns in the imperialist games of Major and Great Powers, who often use them as buffer Countries, Puppets, or captive Markets.

Minting

A form of income that all Countries generate through the printing or casting of new Money. The greater a Country’s Gross Domestic Product, the more Money can be Minted without compromising the economy.

Mobilize Battalion

Battalions assigned to a Mobilized General immediately start Mobilizing at a rate based on the Infrastructure of their State. Mobilized and Mobilizing Battalions consume more Military Goods but are fully prepared to follow their General into Battle.

Mobilize General

Mobilizing a General will immediately begin the process of Mobilization for all Battalions assigned to them. Once Mobilized, a General cannot be demobilized manually but will automatically stand down once the Country is no longer at War.

Modifier

Any adjustment of a value away from its norm is considered a Modifier. These can be permanent or Timed, and their origin can always be sourced back to something like a Law, Technology, Institution, Building, Character Trait, or even an option selected during a special event. Values adjusted by Modifiers all have tooltips that explain the full list of sources and their values.

Momentum

The success of a Party’s Election campaign. Momentum increases the number of Votes a Party gains on Election day, and is nullified thereafter. Momentum can be affected by random chance, special events, and the Popularity of its Party Leader.

Money

Money makes the world go ’round. It is used to pay for Government Wages and Bureaucracy production, Construction materials, industry Subsidies, Convoys for your Trade Routes, and last but probably not least, your military. You gain Money by Taxing your Pops and enforcing Tariffs. Excess Money in your Treasury balance is used to pay off your Loans or stockpile gold in your Gold Reserves. Insufficient Money increases your Loans towards your Credit Limit, which is determined by how much Money is in your Buildings’ Cash Reserves.

Monument

Buildings unique to a certain State that can perform a variety of functions, often conferring Prestige.

Morale

A Military Unit’s Morale measures how much of its remaining Manpower is ready for Battle. As a result of Military Units taking and inflicting Casualties on each other in Battle, some of the remaining Manpower will become Demoralized for the remainder of the Battle and unable to take offensive action. As all Military Units reach a critical threshold of low Morale the Commander will retreat, leaving the other side victorious.

After a Battle, Military Units will regain their Morale at a steady rate up to their Commander’s Supply rating.

N

Nation Formation

If a Country meets certain requirements, such as owning land in specific State Regions and/or having discovered a certain Society Technology, they may be able to form a new Country of a higher Country Tier. The possible Countries are listed in the Nation Formation tab in the Culture panel.

Native Uprising

A type of Diplomatic Play that can occur if the Tension between a colonizer and a Decentralized Nation rises to Volatile level. In this Play, the Decentralized Nation will mobilize its warriors and attempt to seize the Colony from the colonizer.

Neighbors

Two Countries are considered to be Neighbors if they share a land border or if they both own coastal States that connect to the same Sea Node.

Neutrality

All AI-controlled Countries involved in a Diplomatic Play have a level of Neutrality based on their internal conditions and their general level of interest in the participants of the play. The higher their Neutrality, the more difficult it will be to convince that Country to get involved in the play.

Normal Wage

The baseline Wage in a Country which many Buildings take into account. Government Wages and Military Wages are based on the Normal Wage. It is determined from the average Wages paid by Industries across Incorporated States.

O

Obligation

One Country can become Obligated to another as a result of agreements made during Diplomatic Plays or when one Country buys out another’s Loans. While Obligated to a Country you are unable to start Diplomatic Plays against them or even join a Play on the other side as them. The other Country may use an Obligation they hold over you to force you into a Diplomatic Pact, or may absolve it to Sway you into supporting them in a Diplomatic Play or increase Relations with you.

Observer Mode

An Observing player has full access to the user interface and insight into what is happening in the game, but cannot make any gameplay changes.

Obsession

A Culture can be Obsessed with specific Goods. Pops of that Culture will spend significantly more on Goods they are Obsessed with compared to other Goods in the same Pop Needs category.

Occupancy

How fully employed a Building is, which also determines how much of its maximum Productive capacity is utilized. If the Building has room to hire a larger Workforce, it will always try to do so. If its hiring is limited by the Wage it can offer, it will increase Wages for as long as its Balance remains positive.

Occupation

Any Provinces the Country owns that is currently part of an enemy Theater is considered Occupied. Occupation contributes to War Exhaustion. Occupying a War Goal you hold on an enemy is usually required to bring their War Support into the negatives.

Offense

A Military Unit’s fighting ability in Battle while advancing into enemy territory.

Ongoing Diplomatic Action

A type of Diplomatic Pact that can be both initiated and ended at will, with no approval required nor costs incurred by the target Country.

Opening Moves

The Opening Moves phase is the first phase of a Diplomatic Play. In this phase the Target gets to set their primary War Goal, and both Initiator and Target can claim additional War Goals using Maneuvers.

Order

Commanders can be given Orders that cause them to pursue different military objectives. Some Orders have targets (such as Fronts or HQs) while others do not. If an Order requires a Commander to travel they will do so automatically upon having been given it.

Overlord

The dominant Country in a Subject relationship, who derive a number of benefits from the Diplomatic Pact while (usually) having to pay Influence for it.

Ownership Share

Pops with Ownership Shares in their Building gain a portion of its Profit as Pop Income, in the form of Dividends. The amount they receive is based on their share of the Building’s total Ownership Shares. The Pop is also considered to own that proportion of the Building’s current Cash Reserves. How Ownership Shares are apportioned across the Building’s Workforce is determined by its Ownership Production Methods, which are strictly limited by Laws.

P

Party

A Party is a political entity that participates in Election. They consist of one or more Interest Groups whose Ideologies are at least somewhat compatible. These Interest Groups are empowered by the Votes the Party has won proportional to their Clout. Individual Interest Groups cannot be included in Government without the rest of their Party members.

Party Leader

The Leader of the Interest Group in the Party with the most Clout is considered the Party Leader.

Peace Deal

When a War Leader wish to end a War they may offer a Peace Deal. The deal must be agreed to by all negotiating Countries remaining in the War to take effect. To increase the chance the Peace Deal will be agreed to, the War Leader is allowed to include or exclude proposed War Goals from both sides.

Per Capita Taxes

A type of Poll Tax collected from all Pops except Peasants.

Personal Union

Two Countries with the Monarchy Law may be joined together in a Personal Union, a Subject relationship where the Overlord’s Ruler is the Head of State in both Countries. The subject cannot start their own Diplomatic Plays, yet are forced to join their Overlord’s Wars. The Diplomatic Pact will break if the Overlord abolishes the Monarchy.

Placated

A Placated Political Movement is currently satisfied with the changes you are making to the Country, and will put their Revolution on hold for now. They will resume organizing in the event that you abandon that course.

Political Lens

View Interest Groups and Incorporated States, construct Government Buildings, issue Decrees, and manage matters of domestic political importance to your Country.

Political Movement

A Political Movement champions a particular Law, either to enact it, preserve it, or restore it. Both individual Pops and Interest Groups can join Political Movements, which provide it with both Support and Radicalism. Pursuing the change a Political Movement desires will be easier as you have its Support. Failing to pursue the change could lead to a Revolution.

Political Movement Radicalism

The Radicalism of a Political Movement is based on its number of Radicals among its supporting Pops and the Clout of supporting Interest Groups whose Approval is angry or worse. A highly Radical Political Movement is less interested in solving issues via mundane politics, and will be able to start a Revolution sooner.

Political Movement Support

The Support of a Political Movement is based on the Political Strength of its supporting Pops. A Political Movement with a high degree of Support increases the Enactment Success chance if you pursue the Law they desire, or reduces it if they oppose it. Should the Political Movement lead to a Revolution, Political Movement Support will determine how many States it will start with.

Political Strength

The degree of power a Pop, and consequently the Interest Groups it supports, have over the Country’s politics. It is derived from its supporting Pops’ Wealth. Pops who live in Unincorporated States have much less Political Strength, while Pops in the Capital State have more.

Pops distribute their Political Strength to the Interest Groups it supports proportionate to how many of its members support it. If an Interest Group is a member of a Party, they also gain Political Strength from the Votes that Party received in the last Election. An Interest Group’s Clout is equal to their share of the Country’s total Political Strength.

Politically Inactive/Involved

The part of a Pop that does not support an Interest Group is called Politically Inactive. This is often due to low Literacy or Standard of Living. Politically Inactive parts of Pops do not participate in the political process and any Political Strength they possess is wasted.

The opposite of this is Politically Involved. Which means the Pop is part of one of your Country’s Interest Groups and the Pop’s Political Strength is attributed to that Interest Group.

Politician

A Role for those Characters whose influence is political rather than military. They can act as Ruler, Heir, or Interest Group Leader.

Poll Taxes

A flat Tax collected on every Working Adult it applies to. Since Poll Taxes do not scale with the Pop’s income it tends to impact the Lower Strata the most.

Pop

The world’s population are organized into Pops, groups of individuals who work in the same Building as a certain Profession, and share the same Culture and Religion. They use the Income they earn to buy Goods to satisfy their Needs, which decides their Wealth and Standard of Living. They can support Interest Groups and Political Movements, or be Politically Inactive. A Pop has a number of Working Adults and a number of Dependents. Some number of them are Literate, and they might have a number of either Loyalists or Radicals.

Pop Growth

The net number of Individuals a Pop gains or loses over time is governed by its Birthrate and Mortality. Both metrics are governed by Standard of Living and modified by factors such as disease, dangerous working conditions, beneficial Institutions, and available living space.

Information External changes to a Pop’s size due to e.g. Migration or Casualties of War are not considered Pop Growth.

Pop Income

At the end of each week, Pops receive an Income based on the size of their Workforce and the current Wage offered to them, plus the size of their Dependents and the amount of Dependent Income they collect. This Income is spent on Pop Needs which impact the Pop’s Wealth.

Pop Needs

Pops spend their income on Goods to fulfill their Needs. The higher their Wealth the more Goods it will purchase. Pops gain more diverse and luxurious Needs as their Wealth increases. A given Need can often be satisfied by a variety of Goods via Goods Substitution. If the Pop has money left over after its Needs have been fulfilled their Wealth will increase. The inverse is also true: if the Pop cannot afford their Needs they will still purchase them, and the shortfall reduces their Wealth.

Popularity

The Popularity of a Character measures the willingness of Pops to follow them. Popularity can have different effects depending on the Character’s Role.

Port Connection

A Shipping Lane connecting one or several States otherwise unreachable overland to the Market Capital, ensuring Market Access to remote regions. Port Connections require a Port in both ends. The Convoy Cost of a Port Connection is dependent on the total Infrastructure Usage of the States it’s connecting.

Potential Battalions

A Country’s maximum potential Battalions is the sum of the its Potential Regular Battalions and Potential Conscript Battalions.

Potential Regular Battalions: the number of Battalions the Country’s currently constructed Barracks are able to support

Potential Conscript Battalions: the number of Conscript Battalions the Country’s Conscription Centers would create if Conscription had been activated across all States

Power Projection

How intimidating a Country’s military forces appear to other Countries. It forms the basis for the amount of Prestige that a Country gains from its army and navy, and also affects how powerful other Countries perceive them to be when deciding to start or take sides in a Diplomatic Play.

Powerful

The amount of Clout an Interest Group has decides whether it is Powerful, Influential, or Marginalized. A Powerful Interest Group’s Interest Group Traits will have a +100% greater effect than if they were merely Influential.

Interest Groups are considered Powerful while their Clout is above 20.0%.

Prestige

Your Rank is determined by comparing your Prestige to all other Countries in the world. Prestige originates primarily from how impressive your economy is as measured by your Gross Domestic Product, how much Power Projection your military forces generate, and your Country Tier. It can also be affected by other factors such as your Arts Academy and Monuments, and if you are a world leader in the production of a certain Good.

Primary Cultures

The Culture or Cultures a Nation-State is primarily associated with. If a Country forms a different Country its Primary Cultures may change, but will otherwise remain the same.

Principal

The total size of Loans the Treasury has accrued, not including the Interest it owes. If the Principal exceeds your Credit you will go into Default.

Production

The amount of a Good produced by a Building to be sold for Revenue.

Production Lens

View States and construct Production Buildings.

Production Method

Production Methods determine how Buildings operate. They impact:

  • The Input Goods the Building must purchase to operate
  • The Output Goods the Building produces and sells
  • The distribution of Professions among its Workforce

Production Methods can also have other effects, such as the generation of Modifiers or the distribution of Ownership Shares. Production Methods are organized in groups, in which only one can be active at a time. You can switch which Production Method is active in each group as long as you meet the Technology and/or Law requirement for it.

Productivity

Productivity is a relative measure of how much economic value a Building generates per employee per year. It is calculated by taking the current weekly Revenue generated from Production, subtracting the expenses incurred from Consumption, dividing by the total Workforce, and multiplying by 52 (weeks / year).

(Revenue – Material Expenses) / Total Employees

The difference between Productivity and Average Annual Wage is the Building’s weekly Balance, also known as Profit.

Profession

A Pop’s Profession determines which role they perform in their Building, how large of a Wage they collect from it, and whether or not they get Ownership Shares in it. It also impacts which Interest Group they’re likely to support, how likely they are to remain Politically Inactive, and whether they are considered Lower Strata, Middle Strata, or Upper Strata. To switch Professions, a Pop must have the appropriate Qualifications.

Protectorate

A Protectorate is an autonomous Subject type able to start their own Diplomatic Plays. A Country may ask, or be asked, to become a Protectorate under an Overlord without risk of War if the offer is declined.

Province

Subdivisions of States, each with its own Terrain. Provinces are transferred between States during Colonization, and can be temporarily transferred between Theaters during War as the outcome of Battles.

Puppet

Recognized Powers may turn a weaker Country into their Puppet. A Puppet is a Subject type that cannot start their own Diplomatic Plays yet are forced to join their Overlord’s Wars, and must also pay 20% of their Treasury income to their Overlord each week. A Puppet’s Rank cannot increase to match or exceed their Overlord’s, and their Overlord may target them with the Annexation Diplomatic Play.

Q

Qualifications

Pops develop the Qualifications necessary to change into another Profession over time. If their current attributes match those of the Profession, or if they currently work in a related field, they will develop Qualifications for it sooner. Literacy, Wealth, and Discrimination are common deciding factors.

R

Radical

Radical Individuals within a Pop are disillusioned with the state of their Country. The presence of Radicals in a State contributes to Turmoil, and the Radicalism of Pops contribute to Political Movement Radicalism. The Approval of Interest Groups supported by Radical Pops will also be impacted.

Radicals are created continuously while a Pop is subjected to Discrimination or when their Standard of Living falls below their Minimum Expected Standard of Living, whenever a Pop’s Standard of Living decreases, and due to decisions made during special events. Radicals are also created in Pops that support Political Movements whose demands go unfulfilled, and when Pops are fired from a Building’s Workforce (particularly if they held Ownership Shares).

The opposite of a Radical is a Loyalist. Whenever a Loyalist would be created in a Pop that already has Radicals, one Radical is removed instead.

Raid Convoys

An Order given to an Admiral to sink enemy Convoys passing through a sea region. Patrolling fleets passing through the same sea region will attempt to intercept and neutralize the raiders.

Rank

A Country’s Rank is determined by measuring its Prestige relative to other Countries worldwide. It determines what sorts of international activities you are permitted to engage in, what your people and the world expects of you, and where you stand in the global pecking order.

Recognized Power

A Recognized Power is considered a valid nation-state capable of self-determination by consensus of the Great Powers, which sets them apart from Unrecognized Powers.

Recovery Rate

The percentage of Casualties a Military Unit takes that survive, in some cases by becoming Dependents. Can be increased with Medical Aid Production Method and Technologies. Recovery Rate is countered by the enemy Military Unit’s Kill Rate.

Relations

The current stance of diplomatic Relations between two Countries. Both sides can influence this mutual score using the Improve Relations, Damage Relations, and Expel Diplomats Diplomatic Actions by spending Influence. Relations impact which Diplomatic Actions and Pacts are valid interaction options for the Countries, and also impact the likelihood they will accept diplomatic overtures or take your side in a Diplomatic Play.

Religion

All Pops have a Religion, which can only change through Conversion. Their Religion determines whether they are Discriminated Against in their Country or not.

Religious Trait

Aspects of a Religion, such as its major religion group. The similarity between the Religious Traits of a Country’s State Religion and the Religion adhered to by a Pop, combined with the Country’s current Church and State Law, determines whether the Pop is Discriminated Against or not.

Resource Potential

A Resource Potential grants the ability to construct and expand a specific Building type in the state, usually a resource industry such as fisheries, mines, or plantations. The maximum Building Level you can expand the Building to is limited either to a fixed amount per resources, or by the State’s amount of Arable Land.

Revenue

After a Building has Produced Goods, they are sold at the Local Price. The amount of Money made in the sale is the Building’s Revenue, the positive factor of its Balance.

Revolution

A Revolution is the result of a Political Movement that has grown too Radical. If the Movement starts an uprising, States in which its supporting Interest Groups and Pops are relatively strong will separate from the rest of the Country and start a Diplomatic Play to annex the loyalists.

You can lower the Movement’s Political Movement Radicalism by reducing the number of Radicals in the supporting Pops and increasing the Approval of supporting Interest Groups. You can also weaken and slow a Revolution down using the Home Affairs Institution.

Revolution Progression Speed

The rate by which Revolutions progress. Might be affected by Laws.

Rivalry

A Diplomatic Pact established by one Country targeting another of similar Rank, and which generates Influence for the Country declaring the rivalry. The two Countries must have overlapping Interests to be valid rivals. The Pact will also limit the range of Relations that can be established between the two Countries for as long as the Pact is active.

Role

Roles determine what areas of your Country a particular Character has influence over. A Character can have one or several Roles.

The list of Roles are:

  • Ruler (usually also a Politician)
  • Heir
  • Politician
  • General
  • Admiral

Ruler

A Ruler is usually the Head of State who represents the Country’s in domestic and world affairs. A Ruler’s Character Traits affects the Country directly. When a Ruler dies a new one will take their place, either an Heir if one exists or another Character depending on Government Type.

S

Sea Node

An intersection or point along a naval Shipping Lane representing a part of the ocean. Shipping Lanes always take the route between two coastal States that pass through the fewest number of Sea Nodes. Each additional Sea Node beyond the first adds +10.0% to the Convoy Cost.

Secession

A Secession is the result of excessive Cultural Turmoil in a Country that controls any of that Culture’s Homelands. If Cultural Turmoil in a Country exceeds 0.5, Secessionist Pops may begin an uprising. Once complete, the Homelands will separate from the rest of the Country, which will automatically start a Diplomatic Play to return them to the fold.

You can stop a Secessionist uprising by reducing Turmoil among Pops of that Culture in your Country, and you can slow it down using the Home Affairs Institution.

Sell Orders

The number of orders to sell a Good on the central Market is used in combination with Buy Orders to determine its Market Price. Sell Orders are generated by the production of the Good in each of the Market’s States. The higher the Market Access a State has, the closer the number of Sell Orders generated will be to the total production.

Senior Partner

A Senior Partner in a Customs Union gains control of their Junior Partners’ Markets. While the Junior Partners may continue to Trade with other Markets, only the Senior Partner may issue Embargoes and control Tariff levels. In exchange the Senior Partner shares a minor portion of the Market’s Tariff income, while both Countries’ Industries benefit from participating in a more powerful and mature Market.

Shipping Lane

A Shipping Lane is a naval connection of Convoys between two coastal States to move Goods and Pops from place to place. A Shipping Lane can be either a Trade Route, Supply Route, or a Port Connection.

Shipping Lane Effectiveness

The Effectiveness of a Shipping Lane is determined by the strength of a Country’s Supply Network, reduced by any damage it has sustained from Raid Convoys. When Effectiveness is below 100%, the function of the Shipping Lane is reduced to match.

Slavery

A practice where one person is permitted legal ownership over another. Slaves will be substituted for other Pops in different Building types based on the Country’s Laws. Laws also determine how existing Pops become Enslaved and how Slaves are uprooted and transported to the Country.

Sovereignty

A Country’s right to self-govern. When one Country violates the Sovereignty of another they openly disrespect this right. Should the other not respond in turn with an immediate military response enforcing the integrity of their borders, they submit to the violator and permit them military access through their territory.

Split State

A State Region split into multiple smaller States belonging to different Countries. When split, a portion of the Resource Potentials, Buildings, and Pops are redistributed between the States. Should one Country take control of more than one part of the Split State, these will be combined into a single State.

Stalled Enactment

Stalled Enactment indicates the percentage chance that the enactment process of a Law will be substantially hindered at the next checkpoint. Its base chance is equal to the total Clout of opposing Interest Groups in Government.

Standard of Living

Standard of Living measures a Pop’s living conditions, with their material Wealth as the baseline. It governs Birthrate and Mortality, and every time it changes it can cause Pops to become more Radical or Loyal. The average Standard of Living in a State affects its Migration Attraction.

State

A geographic region controlled by a Country. Pops live and work in the Buildings in the State. Unless it is a Split State its territory is equivalent to a State Region. Unless it is Isolated, it will trade any Goods locally Consumed and Produced with other States in the same Market in to a degree based on its Market Access.

State Region

A part of the world corresponding with a certain fixed set of Provinces. A State Region is usually equivalent to a State. In certain cases a State Region can become a Split State, where two or more Countries each hold a State in the same State Region.

State Religion

The Religion most associated with a Country. It is typically the dominant Religion adhered to by most of its Pops, but can sometimes be legally declared or simply the Religion preferred by its Ruler. It does not typically change.

Strategic Desire

AI-controlled Countries may have a Strategic Desire towards Countries they deem geopolitically relevant. Their Strategic Desire influence their Attitude.

Strategic Region

A collection of State Regions considered a region of strategic importance. Countries have an Interest in all Regions where they own Land, and may project additional Interests in other Strategic Regions if their Rank is high enough to do so.

Maintaining an Active Interest in a Strategic Region is a prerequisite to participate in Diplomatic Plays taking place there.

Strategy

AI-controlled Countries have a set of three Strategies in areas corresponding with the Capacities which govern their long- and short-term goals, and how they will proceed when making decisions in regards to other Countries. Which Strategies are selected is influenced by a number of factors such as the Country’s size and Rank, as well as its current Government.

Subject

A Country whose autonomy and right to self-determination is limited to varying degree by an Overlord. Subject relationships are a type of Diplomatic Pact that Countries can be asked to join or forced into with a Diplomatic Play. The precise effects depends on the type of Subject but tend to include being forced into their Overlord’s Market, having to give up a part of their Treasury’s income, decreased Prestige, the inability to start your own Diplomatic Plays or freely decide which side to support in them, and inheriting the Overlord’s Ruler as your Head of State.

Subjects can be liberated with a Diplomatic Play started by themselves or a third party. Some Subject types can also be targeted by a Play by their Overlord to reduce their autonomy further, or even become fully Annexed by them.

Subsidies

A Subsidized Building is guaranteed by the Country’s Government to be funded enough to always by able to pay at least the Subsidized Wage. If the building cannot pay its employees according to this rate or higher, and/or if its cost of buying Input Goods exceeds its Revenue from selling Output Goods, the Treasury will cover the difference. This guarantees the Building can hire as many employees as it wants in order to maximize Throughput without concern for how financially viable that is.

Subsidized Wage

When a Subsidized Building cannot pay their Workforce at least the Normal Wage, the remainder is covered by government Subsidies through the Treasury. In return the Building will never fire its Workforce and aim to keep Throughput maximized at all times.

Subsistence Building

A set of Buildings that perform low-intensity, decentralized production of food and basic resource Goods suitable for mere survival. Their production is split between a small quantity of Goods to be sold on the Market and Subsistence Output used to sustain the meager Standard of Living of the Peasants who work there. They are considerably less effective than most Buildings, but will operate on any unclaimed Arable Land and does not require manual Construction.

Subsistence Output

A form of in-kind income that Peasants generate from Subsistence Farming, which represents the work they perform producing Goods to cover their own Needs. Unlike Wages, Subsistence Output is not paid out from the Building’s Revenue and is not subject to Income Taxes.

Supply

A Commander’s Supply sets the baseline Supply for Military Units under their command. Supply is usually 100%, but can be lower if a General is overseas and supplied by a compromised Shipping Lane, and will be zero if the General is completely cut off from its HQ. Character Traits and Modifiers can also apply in some cases.

Supply Network

Every seafaring Country maintains a Supply Network of Convoys to maintain the transportation needs of their Shipping Lanes. The total strength of your Supply Network is determined by comparing the amount of Convoys produced to the total Convoy Cost across all your Shipping Lanes. This strength is the baseline Effectiveness of all your Shipping Lanes.

Supply Route

A Shipping Lane that supplies a General Ordered to advance or defend a Front only accessible by sea. The General’s Supply level is equal to the Supply Route’s Effectiveness.

Suppress

A Suppressed Interest Group is less attractive for Pops to support. Your base Suppression ability is determined by your Free Speech Law. Suppressing Interest Groups cost Authority.

Sway

The Initiator or Target in a Diplomatic Play can attempt to Sway any other Country with an Active Interest in the Strategic Region to their side, by offering a War Goal or other promise such as an Obligation. Attempting to Sway a Country costs Maneuvers, and the chance an AI Country will accept the offer depends on your Relations and their Attitude to you as well as your opponent.

Sympathy

All AI-controlled Countries involved in a Diplomatic Play begin the play with a level of Sympathy for each side, which influences how likely they are to support that side in the conflict. AI Countries tend to have higher Sympathy for the Target, for countries they have Diplomatic Pacts with, and for those are opposing a Country with high Infamy. Sympathy can also increase over the course of the Diplomatic Play, as a side that gains powerful backers or accrues Infamy through adding War Goals tends to generate Sympathy for the opposing side.

T

Taboo

A Religion can be have a Taboo against specific Goods. Pops of that Religion will spend significantly less on Goods they consider Taboo compared to other Goods in the same Pop Needs category.

Target

The Country targeted by a Diplomatic Play.

Tariffs

Tariffs are a type of Tax on Trade. The Tariff Rate applied to a Trade Route depends on your Country’s current Trade Policy Law and your Market Good Policy for the Good being traded, while the actual income collected by your Treasury on the Trade Route depends on its volume and the Good’s Base Price. Any Tariffs charged on the Trade Route is subtracted from the Revenue of the Trade Center managing it, which discourages increasing the volume traded.

Tax Waste

The amount of Taxes collected that are wasted, due to inefficiencies or corruption, prior to entering the government coffers.

Taxation Capacity

Each point of Taxation Capacity in a State allows for the efficient taxation of 10.0K Pops. If the population of a State outgrows its Taxation Capacity, the efficiency of all forms of taxation will be reduced. Taxation Capacity can be increased through researching certain Society Technologies or constructing Government Administration Buildings in the State.

Taxes

Countries can tap into their market economies in various ways. The most common is to tax its populace’s private sector incomes, or charge duties on the sales, purchase, or trade of Goods.

Technology

Technology covers all innovation in the fields of Production, Military, and Society. Technologies have nation-wide effects, which can range from changing the Country’s operating parameters via Modifiers to unlocking new Production Methods, Buildings, Laws, Decrees, and Diplomatic Pacts.

Progress is made towards new Technologies through Innovation, which is primarily produced by University Buildings. In addition to progress from Innovation, Technologies may propagate from Countries who already have them to those who do not via Technology Spread.

The amount of progress required in a Technology to acquire it depends on its Era. If you have not yet acquired all Technologies from previous Eras, the amount required will increase further.

Technology Era

Technology Eras are a rough classification of which time period a certain idea was first discovered or developed.

  • Era I inventions were well-known in many parts of the world prior to 1836.
  • Era II inventions are associated with the First Industrial Revolution (1836 to mid-19th century).
  • Era III is a period of evolution, stabilization, and standardization that runs until late 19th century.
  • Era IV corresponds with the Second Industrial Revolution around the turn of the century.
  • Era V inventions are transformative, modern ideas.

Technologies require more Innovation to discover the later Era it appears in. If you have not yet acquired all Technologies from previous Eras, the amount required will increase further.

Technology Spread

One Technology that you have not yet acquired from each category (Production, Military, and Society) is always spreading to you from Countries that have acquired them. The progress you get in spreading Technologies is randomized each week around a base value depending on your Country’s Literacy. If no Country has invented a certain Technology yet it cannot spread to you, so you are more likely to acquire early Era Technologies from Technology Spread than later ones.

Tension

How strained the relationship is between a Colonizing Country and nearby Decentralized Nations. Tensions rise with all nearby Decentralized Nations whenever a Province is taken over, and decreases over time as long as no new land is taken.

If the tension level rises to Volatile, continued colonization may trigger a Native Uprising.

Terrain

A Province’s Terrain determines its Combat Width and how volatile and unpredictable Battles in that Province is. Generals can also be more or less versed in fighting in different types of Terrain.

The Terrain of a given Province can change as a result of the Buildings constructed in the State.

Theater

A region of adjacent Provinces under the control of a single Country. Fronts are created on the border between two Theaters controlled by Countries hostile to each other in a War or Diplomatic Play.

Throughput

How effectively the Workforce of a Building can turn Input Goods into Output Goods or other effects. Throughput can increase as a result of Economy of Scale, and might be adjusted up or down due to Modifiers.

Timed Modifier

A Modifier with an expiry date, after which it will disappear. Timed Modifiers can either maintain its full effect up until its expiry date, or Decay gradually until the date has been reached.

Trade Agreement

A type of Diplomatic Pact between two Countries that eliminates Tariffs and Bureaucracy cost of Trade Routes between them.

Trade Lens

View Markets and Trade Routes, construct Infrastructure Buildings, and manage Trade-related aspects of your Country.

Trade Revenue

A Trade Route generates revenue for the Trade Center managing it, depending on the Market Price difference and the volume traded. Tariffs reduce the Trade Revenue generated, effectively decreasing the maximum volume a Trade Route can move before it becomes unprofitable and stagnates.

Trade Route

Trade Routes Buy Goods on one Market, transport it to another using Convoys (or overland, if the Markets are adjacent), and Sell the Goods there in order to make Revenue (from which Tariffs are subtracted) for the Trade Center managing it. In the process it creates Buy and Sell Orders on the two Markets, making it more expensive in one and less in the other. The volume of Goods moved will independently scale up and down to meet the Market conditions in both, employing more or less Workforce to match. Each Trade Route costs a fixed amount of Bureaucracy to maintain.

Trade Route Competitiveness

If a Market’s pool of Goods available for Trade is depleted due to too many Trade partners, the Competitiveness of each competing Trade Route determines how large a share they get access to. A Trade Route’s Competitiveness increases over time.

Treasury

The Treasury keeps track of your Country’s assets. Each week your budget balance will result in the Treasury taking out more Loans to cover a Money deficit, or depositing Money into the Gold Reserves.

Treaty Port

A coastal State that consists of a single Province taken as a War Goal for purpose of opening Trade with that Country. A Treaty Port permits its owner to bypass Tariffs and Embargoes when trading with any Market in the same State Region. Treaty Ports that come under hostile occupation will not confer any of their benefits while the occupation lasts.

Tributary

Unrecognized Powers may turn a weaker Country into their Tributary. A Tributary is a more autonomous Subject type that are able to start their own Diplomatic Plays and are not forced to join their Overlord’s Wars. They must pay 10% of their Treasury income to their Overlord each week.

Turmoil

States and Cultures with Turmoil contain Radicals that are unhappy with their current circumstances. The amount of Turmoil is equal to the fraction of the State’s or Culture’s Workforce that are Radical.

Turmoil can inflict a number of negative local status effects on a State if it gets high enough. Cultural Turmoil can impact a whole Country in very disruptive ways.

U

Under Construction

When a Building is using Construction it is considered being Under Construction.

Unemployed

An Unemployed Pop does not work in any of its State’s Buildings and therefore does not collect a Wage. They are likely to take the next best job that comes along, and will likely Emigrate if nothing comes along.

Unification Candidate

A Unification Candidate is a Country considered a viable candidate for unification. The conditions for who qualifies as a Unification Candidate varies depending on which unified nation it is.

Unification Supporter

A Unification Supporter is a Country that favors a particular Unification Candidate. Should the unification be successful, the Unification Supporter will become a part of the union.

Unincorporated State

A State that is within a Country’s domain, but considered a territorial holding or frontier beyond the reach of Institutions and Government. Pops who live in Unincorporated States are disenfranchised and do not contribute much Political Strength to their Interest Groups, nor can they Vote in Elections. On the upside (for them) they are exempt from Taxation.

Unincorporated States do not cost Bureaucracy to maintain, as Taxes are not collected and Institutions do not provide any benefits there. Unincorporated States can be Incorporated, which will put it under the direct management of the Country’s central authority.

Unrecognized Power

Unrecognized Powers are Polities perceived as inferior and uncivilized by the reigning Great Powers, who regard them as little more than potential future conquests. As a result their Prestige is penalized and they can be targeted with more severe Diplomatic Plays. They are also restricted in what Ranks they may reach, no matter how much Prestige they acquire.

An Unrecognized Power that wish to remove these penalties must claim recognition from a Great Power through a Diplomatic Play.

Upper Strata

The Upper Strata consist of Pops with Professions they Qualify for mostly on the basis of Wealth. These Professions are typically not available to Pops subject to Discrimination either. They tend to hold Ownership Shares in their Buildings and draw Dividends and collect Interest in addition to Wages.

Urbanization

Urbanization is generated by most Buildings constructed in a State to varying degrees. For every 100 Urbanization in a State, one Urban Center will also spring up.

V

Vassal

Unrecognized Powers may turn a weaker Country into their Vassal. A Vassal is a Subject type that cannot start their own Diplomatic Plays yet are forced to join their Overlord’s Wars, and must also pay 15% of their Treasury income to their Overlord each week.

Votes

Your Laws determine whether any given Pop gets to cast a Vote, and if so, how much Political Strength that vote will count for. Votes are cast for Parties during Election periods. Pops will tend to vote for the Party their Interest Group belongs to, but may be won over by another Party with greater Momentum. After the Election date, the number of total Votes each Party received will be fixed until the next Election, and will increase the Clout of any Interest Groups that are members of the Party.

W

Wage

Wages paid to Pops by the Building they work in depends on several factors, the most prominent being the Pop’s Profession and the Building’s financial situation. If a Building’s Balance allows for raising Wages at all, the Building will only do so if it needs to in order to attract more Pops to its Workforce. If a Building’s Balance is negative, it will consider lowering Wages to return to profitability.

You can guarantee that the Workforce is paid a competitive Wage by Subsidizing the building. This will keep it afloat with funds from the Treasury if necessary.

Wages

Pops in the employ of a Country’s Government Buildings and Military Buildings get paid Wages from the Treasury each week, according to the Government Wage and Military Wage respectively.

War

An active armed conflict between two sides of co-belligerent Countries as a result of the failure to peacefully resolve a Diplomatic Play. During Wars, Commanders on land and at sea will follow Orders to complete certain objectives, often resulting in Battles between the two sides.

War Exhaustion

A Population tends to suffer while their Country is at War. The following factors contribute to War Exhaustion:

  • How much Land has been Occupied
  • How many War Goals the enemy controls
  • How many Casualties have been taken
  • How much the Country is suffering from Turmoil

War Exhaustion reduces War Support each week, bringing the Country closer to agreeing to a Peace Deal.

War Goal

War Goals are the objectives a Country is fighting a War over. They are determined during the Diplomatic Play and are fixed after the War has begun. Each War Goal claimed in a Peace Deal decreases the chance the opponent will accept it, and increases the degree by which their War Support must be Exhausted before they will agree.

The first War Goal claimed as part of the Diplomatic Play is considered your Primary War Goal, and some Diplomatic Plays require it to be included in all Peace Deals.

War Leader

One Country on each side of a War is considered the War Leader for that side, usually (but not always) corresponding to the Initiator and Target of the Diplomatic Play that spawned it. They are the only ones who may propose Peace Deals, though every Peace Deal must be ratified by all negotiating members of the War to be accepted.

War Reparations

A secondary War Goal that can be added onto a Diplomatic Play and claimed as part of a Peace Deal. If enforced, the targeted Country is forced to transfer of their Treasury income to the other for a duration of 60 months.

War Support

A measure of how eager your Country’s is to remain in a War. Positive values indicates a desire to stay in the War while negative values indicate a general opposition to it. Once War Support reaches -100 the Country will immediately capitulate, allowing all War Goals to be pressed on them.

Wealth

A measure of a Pop’s material assets. To sustain a certain level of Wealth the Pop has a set of Needs it must satisfy each week. If their Income does not cover the cost of these Needs, their Wealth will eventually decrease. If they have Money left over after purchasing the necessary Goods, Wealth will soon increase.

Wealth is the main factor contributing to a Pop’s Standard of Living, and under certain Laws it may affect other aspects of their life such as Literacy and Voting Rights.

Welfare Payments

Welfare Payments are a form of direct subsidy paid by by a Country to all Pops in the Workforce that receive wages lower than the defined fraction of the Normal Wage.

Workforce

The Workforce of a Building consists of Pops of different Professions depending on the currently active Production Methods.

Working Adults

The part of a Pop that make up the Workforce that work in Buildings for Wages. They are the main source of a Pop’s Income and Political Strength.

Wounded

Casualties that are merely Wounded in Battle or due to Attrition. Some Wounded Casualties recover and return to active service after some time, while others end up as Dependents of other Pops in your Country.

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