This simple guide will explain where a couple of helpful containers are in Starfield.
Unlimited Storage Guide
Constellation HQ (The Lodge) Basement
In Constellation HQ there is a basement to the right of spawn which leads to a room with all of the major workbenches.
This area consists of three storage boxes and three ammo cases with unlimited storage. A storage box with unlimited space is denoted by this icon on the bottom of the box.
Storage Box 1:
Storage Box 2 (in the adjacent room):
Storage Box 3 (in another adjacent room):
Ammo Cases 1-3 (Next to the weapon workbench):
These are helpful containers as they are right next to all the major workbenches. I recommend keeping your stuff here and simply taking what you need to an outpost instead of trying to keep your resources at 50 different outposts. Hopefully this guide helps someone as the storage situation in Starfield is currently a major issue for Bethesda game item hoarders such as myself.
Note that there is also an unlimited storage safe in the room you are provided during the main questline, however, these containers are not only closer to spawn, they are right next to the workbenches.